Jacobs journal of cancer science and research

22.04.2021

Metrics details. Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination.

This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size HAES challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures e.

This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES. Peer Review reports. Concern regarding "overweight" and "obesity" is reflected in a diverse range of policy measures aimed at helping individuals reduce their body mass index BMI 1.

Concern has arisen that this weight focused paradigm is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but also damaging, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination [ 6 — 8 ].

As evidence-based competencies are more firmly embedded in health practitioner standards, attention has been given to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging [ 59 ]. The primary intent of HAES is to support improved health behaviors for people of all sizes without using weight as a mediator; weight loss may or may not be a side effect.

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An international professional organization, the Association for Size Diversity and Health, has developed, composed of individual members across a wide span of professions who are committed to HAES principles. Several clinical trials comparing HAES to conventional obesity treatment have been conducted. Some investigations were conducted before the name "Health at Every Size" came into common usage; these earlier studies typically used the terms "non-diet" or "intuitive eating" and included an explicit focus on size acceptance as opposed to weight loss or weight maintenance.

A Pub Med search for "Health at Every Size" or "intuitive eating" or "non-diet" or "nondiet" revealed 57 publications.

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Randomized controlled trials RCTs were vetted from these publications, and additional RCTs were vetted from their references. Only studies with an explicit focus on size acceptance were included. Evidence from these six RCTs indicates that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures e. See Table 1. All studies indicate significant improvements in psychological and behavioral outcomes; improvements in self-esteem and eating behaviors were particularly noteworthy [ 11 — 1416171920 ].

Four studies additionally measured metabolic risk factors and three of these studies indicated significant improvement in at least some of these parameters, including blood pressure and blood lipids [ 111216171920 ]. No studies found adverse changes in any variables.

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A seventh RCT reported at a conference also found significantly positive results [ 18 ], as did a non-randomized controlled study [ 21 ] and five studies conducted without a control [ 22 — 26 ]. All of the controlled studies showed retention rates substantially higher than, or, in one instance, as high, as the control group, and all of the uncontrolled studies also showed high retention rates.

Given the well-documented recidivism typical of weight loss programs [ 52728 ] and the potential harm that may arise[ 2930 ], this aspect is particularly noteworthy. Dieting and other weight loss behaviors are popular in the general population and widely encouraged in public health policy and health care practice as a solution for the "problem" of obesity.

There is increasing concern about the endemic misrepresentation of evidence in these weight management policies [ 58 ]. Researchers have demonstrated ways in which bias and convention interfere with robust scientific reasoning such that obesity research seems to "enjoy special immunity from accepted standards in clinical practice and publishing ethics" [ 5831 ].

This section discusses the assumptions that underlie the current weight-focused paradigm, presenting evidence that contests their scientific merit and challenges the value of promoting weight management as a public health measure. Evidence: Except at statistical extremes, body mass index BMI - or amount of body fat - only weakly predicts longevity [ 32 ].Since aspartame was first approved inboth FDA scientists and independent scientists have raised concerns about possible health effects and shortcomings in the science submitted to the FDA by the manufacturer, G.

Monsanto bought Searle in InUPI published a series of investigative articles by Gregory Gordon reporting on these concerns, including early studies linking aspartame to health problems, the poor quality of industry-funded research that led to its approval, and the revolving-door relationships between FDA officials and the food industry. See also. While many studies, some of them industry sponsored, have reported no problems with aspartame, dozens of independent studies conducted over decades have linked aspartame to a long list of health problems, including:.

In the most comprehensive cancer research to date on aspartame, three lifespan studies conducted by the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the Ramazzini Institute, provide consistent evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents exposed to the substance.

Aspartame: Decades of Science Point to Serious Health Risks

Harvard researchers in reported a positive association between aspartame intake and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma in men, and for leukemia in men and women.

On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects … a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. Early studies on aspartame in the s found evidence of brain tumors in laboratory animals, but those studies were not followed up. People drinking diet soda daily were almost three times as likely to develop stroke and dementia as those who consumed it weekly or less.

The study describes three previously healthy adults who had grand mal seizures during periods when they were consuming high doses of aspartame. Aspartame has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems including learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, wrote the researchers of a study in Nutritional Neuroscience.

It appears that some people are particularly susceptible to headaches caused by aspartame and may want to limit their consumption. Several studies link aspartame to weight gain, increased appetite, diabetes, metabolic derangement and obesity-related diseases.

Aspartame breaks down in part into phenylalanine, which interferes with the action of an enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase IAP previously shown to prevent metabolic syndrome a group of symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease according to a study in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. In this study, mice receiving aspartame in their drinking water gained more weight and developed other symptoms of metabolic syndrome than animals fed similar diets lacking aspartame.

In a study that followed 66, women over 14 years, both sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages were associated with risk of Type 2 diabetes. Artificial sweeteners can induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota, according to a study in Nature. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy is linked to higher body mass index for babies, according to a study in JAMA Pediatrics. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study followed girls for 10 years to examine prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche.We have created a central resources hub for Health Professionals which hosts all of our CRUK resources and further materials to help with managing the pandemic.

We are updating the information as guidance changes. There is also a page specifically for patients on our about cancer hub. Older age is the main risk factor for cancer. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time.

jacobs journal of cancer science and research

Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. This page covers other factors with the best evidence of an association with cancer risk; this list is not exhaustive.

See our other pages for general information about cancer, or ways to reduce your risk. Lifetime risk for all cancers combined and cancers compared.

Pancreatic cancer incidence statistics. How risk is calculated. Want to generate bespoke preventable cancers stats statements? Data is for UK, past and projected cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality rates for those born inICD C The calculations used past and projected cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality rates for those born in to project risk over the lifetime of those born in cohort method.

Download our interactive statement generator. Find out more about the definitions and evidence for this data. Learn how attributable risk is calculated. Pancreatic cancer risk is 2. Pancreatic cancer risk is increased to a similar extent in people who smoke cigars only and people who smoke cigarettes only, a pooled analysis showed. Pancreatic cancer risk in those who quit smoking 20 years ago is similar to that of never-smokers, a pooled analysis showed.

jacobs journal of cancer science and research

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with ever-use of smokeless tobacco overall, compared with never-use of any tobacco, a pooled analysis and systematic review have shown.

UK portrait version shown here. Country versions, cancers caused by other risk factors, and landscape formats are available for free from our cancer risk publications.

See IARC's classifications on the role of this risk factor. View our statistics on tobacco and cancer. View our health information on smoking and cancer. View our health information on obesity, weight and cancer. View our statistics on alcohol and cancer. Pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people with the following rare genetic conditions, compared with the general population:[ 3,4 ]. These genetic syndromes explain a small proportion of familial pancreatic cancer.

See more information on how inherited genes can be a cause of cancer. Pancreatic cancer risk is at least threefold higher in people with chronic pancreatitis versus those without, a meta-analysis showed. Residual confounding by smoking and alcohol use may explain some of the association. Pancreatic cancer risk is increased more than fold in people with hereditary pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer risk may be lower in metformin users versus non-users,[ 6,7 ] however there may be no association,[ 8,9 ] meta-analyses have shown.

Pancreatic cancer risk may be lower in insulin users versus non-users,[ 10 ] however there may be no association,[ 9 ] meta-analyses have shown; risk may only be increased with shorter-term insulin use.UB is the premier public research university in the Northeastern United States and the largest and most comprehensive campus in the campus SUNY system. The CAS offers a comprehensive range of degrees and programs through its 29 departments, 25 centers and institutes, two art galleries, and major theater and music performance venues.

Among the top dental schools in the country, the School of Dental Medicine is known for the quality of its DDS and postgraduate programs, and its long history of leadership in oral biology research. UB's School of Management is recognized for its emphasis on real-world learning, community and economic impact, and the global perspective of its faculty, students and alumni. The school also has been ranked by Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes and U. It houses one of the world's top graduate programs in pharmaceutical sciences, along with a professional PharmD program that ranks in the top 25 percent nationally.

The UB School of Public Health and Health Professions is home to innovative research that uses a global perspective to examine critical health issues. They are designed for individuals pursuing careers in cancer research or in basic and translational biomedical research.

Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift

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Read more here. Authors: Janine A. Kamphuis, Marijke Linschoten, Maarten J. Cramer, Pieter A. Doevendans, Folkert W. Asselbergs and Arco J. El Masry. Slingluff Jr and Elizabeth M.

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Authors: Anecita P. Fadol, Nicolas L. Palaskas, Michael S. Ewer and Anita Deswal. Authors: Claire C. Conley, Neha G. Goyal and Sherry-Ann Brown. Most recent articles RSS. View all articles. Hochberg and Leon M. Authors: Anthony F.

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For more information about this important work, please visit the ICOS website. The discount should be requested during the submission process. Steven E. His research interests focus on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical correlates of anticancer drugs cardiovascular toxicity. Visit the membership page to check if your institution is a member and learn how you could save on article-processing charges APCs. Learn more here. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search.

Articles Recent Most accessed Early- and late anthracycline-induced cardiac dysfunction: echocardiographic characterization and response to heart failure therapy Authors: Janine A. Teske Content type: Research 13 October PubMed Journals helped people follow the latest biomedical literature by making it easier to find and follow journals, browse new articles, and included a Journal News Feed to track new arrivals news links, trending articles and important article updates.

PubMed Journals was a successful experiment. Since Septembernearly 20, people followed 10, distinct journals. Each customer followed 3 journals on average. We appreciate your feedback over the years that made PubMed Journals a productive test of new ideas.

What does this mean? I followed a link to an article and I get this page? How am I supposed to see the article?! The PubMed Journals site now redirects here, as that experiment is now over.

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You should be able to search and find articles on PubMed, as usual. Please email us at info ncbi.

PubMed Journals will be shut down

Does this mean that PubMed will no longer be publicly accessible? Surely not? What DOES it mean? Where is the headlined article? Will someone reply to this? I see similar questions, but no replies. This means that the PubMed Journals experimental site is no longer available. Terrible news. I have referred so many of my students to this to help them as teachers.

I guess another budget cut in the wrong place. Yes terribly unfair and in-adapted to the actual situation, it should have been more opened instead, incredible and so disappointed! I feel like a part of me has been robbed, lost and taken from me with no regard! Say this isnt so!! PubMed offered the ability to maximize easy access to current research from the laboratories around the world from your home computer!!When I was researching the holiday, I looked at a number of different options with a number of different Travel Agents, but I am so glad I chose Nordic Visitor.

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The fact that everyone spoke perfect English took a lot of the stress out of a foreign holiday and we would both love to be back there right now. The quality of the sunshine and the air was quite exceptional, the long sunny evenings were a bonus and the lack of crowds made such a pleasant change from England.

jacobs journal of cancer science and research

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jacobs journal of cancer science and research

They will always be my first choice for traveling in the Northern Countries. Overall, we were very happy with Nordic Visitor, especially with the itinerary materials we received on arrival and the seamless experience we had from arrival to departure. The Garmin GPS we received with our car was very helpful, particularly in locating hotels and other necessities.

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The list of possible extra activities was very helpful. The detailed map of Iceland with personalised suggestions (including home made ice cream. You were very thorough in preparing the information and this made our visit easy and gave us every opportunity to see the wonderful sights of Iceland.

I found Iceland a most beautiful and exciting country but more important and impressive is the quality of your society as a whole. I thank you at all at Nordic Visitor in particular and all the people of Iceland in general for making my visit so memorable Everything was wonderful.

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